In Utah, drones are hovering near avalanches to watch roaring snow. In North Carolina, they’re searching for the nests of endangered birds. In Kansas, they could soon be identifying sick cows through heat signatures.

North Carolina through a Department of Transportation initiative is cited as one of  “states conducting cutting-edge research” in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official survey.

“Three state DOTs—Kansas, North Dakota, and North Carolina—are in the Federal Aviation Administration Integration Pilot Program, which allows them to fly missions beyond line of sight, at night, and above people. Those three states are testing drone applications for plant growth and irrigation, emergency response, and commercial package delivery, the survey says.

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“The Ohio DOT, through DriveOhio’s UAS Center, in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and other partners, is developing SkyVision: a ground-based detect-and-avoid system that is being used to track drones for beyond-line-of-sight operations.”

In North Carolina, drones are finding the nests of endangered species like the red-cockaded woodpecker, said Basil Yap, unmanned aerial systems program manager at the state’s transportation department.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials graphic

People used to fan out in helicopters or all-terrain vehicles to check for evidence of the protected birds before building new projects, but the drones can do the job quicker with less disruption, Yap said.

They’re also used to check for protected bats nesting under bridges and to spray herbicide on invasive plants near shorelines.

Public transportation agencies are using drones in nearly every state and the surveyshows a sharp increase in their use over the last few years, reflecting the rapid adoption of the technology by governments as well as hobbyists.

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In 2016, the nonprofit group found no state transportation agency was using drones on a daily basis. Now, 36 states have certified drone pilots on staff. When the survey was done this month, all but one state was using drones in some way. Since then, the lone holdout — Rhode Island — has bought a drone, said Tony Dorsey, a spokesman for the group.

The small, unmanned aircraft are often used for mundane tasks, like inspecting bridges and roads. With sophisticated cameras and thermal technology, they can detect tiny cracks and identify potential potholes before they’re visible to the human eye.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ggraphic

Drones have caused their share of headaches for officials over the years as personal devices forced the grounding of planes at airports or those fighting wildfires.

But they also can be useful for work that’s dangerous for people. In Utah, drones record from the air as state workers set off planned avalanches, allowing them to watch the slides close up in real time, said Jared Esselman, director of aeronautics at the state Department of Transportation.

Drones also can measure snow and other elements of the state’s rugged terrain to keep them from blocking roads or other infrastructure.

“We can predict not only snow slides, but mudslides and water runoff as the snow melts,” Esselman said. “Drones are a perfect tool for any job that is dangerous or dirty.”

Utah is getting 40 new drones to take photos at traffic wrecks for the investigation.

A number of states are beginning to explore how to regulate a flood of private drone traffic expected in the future. In Ohio, the state is working on an air-traffic control system called SkyVision, which would allow drones to detect and avoid other aircraft in flight.

Top 5 Drone Missions

From the survey:

1. Photo/Video
2. Surveying
3. Infrastructure Inspections
4. Emergency Response/Natural
5. Public Education and Outreach

Read the full survey online.